Despite compulsory auto insurance laws in almost every state, about one out of eight drivers gets behind the wheel without liability coverage. In some states, more than 20% of drivers on the road may be uninsured.1
Some drivers forego insurance because they can’t afford it, while others don’t want to pay high premiums resulting from poor driving records. Even drivers who carry insurance might choose to limit their coverage to what’s required by their state, but the amount may not be sufficient to cover a serious injury or extensive property damage. Regardless of their reason for not having appropriate coverage, uninsured and underinsured motorists aren’t only a potential financial liability to themselves, but also to insured drivers.
Fortunately, insurance coverage is available to help protect you financially if you’re involved in an accident with an uninsured or underinsured driver. Though this coverage is optional in most states, it could make a big difference to you and your family.
Types of coverage
Available options vary by state, but there are generally four types of coverage. Keep in mind these coverages only apply when the uninsured or underinsured motorist is at fault, and any compensation is only up to the limits defined in your policy.
|Uninsured motorist (UM) coverage||
Uninsured motorist (UM) coverage [also called uninsured motorist bodily injury (UMBI) coverage] will compensate you, a passenger, or a designated driver in your vehicle (or a covered individual as a pedestrian) for bodily injuries caused by an uninsured motorist or a hit-and-run driver. This type of coverage will pay for medical expenses, lost wages, and pain and suffering.
Your health insurance would pay for medical expenses for yourself or others covered under your policy, but deductibles and other out-of-pocket expenses can be high and health insurance wouldn’t compensate you for lost wages or pain and suffering. Of course, passengers not covered under your medical insurance would have to use their own health insurance.
|Uninsured motorist property damage (UMPD)||
Uninsured motorist property damage (UMPD) coverage will compensate you for damage to your car and may also pay for damage to other personal property. UMPD isn’t available in all states and typically doesn’t cover damage caused by a hit-and-run driver. If your state allows you to purchase UMPD and collision coverage, UMPD usually only pays the collision deductible. In some states, the collision deductible may be waived when damage is caused by an uninsured driver.
|Underinsured motorist (UIM)||
Underinsured motorist (UIM) coverage [also called uninsured motorist bodily injury (UMBI) coverage] helps pay the difference when costs due to bodily injury exceed the liability policy limits of the at-fault driver. Generally, the amount received from the at-fault driver reduces the maximum payout under the UIM coverage.
For example, let’s say you’re legally entitled to a $150,000 settlement for medical expenses, lost wages, and pain and suffering, but the at-fault driver has only $50,000 of liability coverage. If you have a $100,000 per person bodily injury limit on your UIM coverage, you might think your $150,000 expenses would be fully covered. In fact, you’d typically receive only $50,000 from your UIM policy ($100,000 limit - $50,000 payout from the other driver). Some states offer the option for UIM coverage that isn’t reduced by the amount received from the at-fault driver.
|Underinsured motorist property damage (UIMPD)||
Underinsured motorist property damage (UIMPD) coverage pays for damage to your car or other property that exceeds the liability limits of the at-fault driver. For example, if your car is “totaled” and valued at $20,000, and the at-fault driver only carries $10,000 liability insurance for property damage, the UIMPD coverage would pay the additional $10,000 (assuming you have at least a $20,000 limit for property damage). As with UMPD, this type of damage might be covered by collision insurance and UIMPD may only pay the collision deductible.
Depending on the state, UM and IM coverage may be bundled together or sold separately. The cost of these coverages is usually relatively inexpensive considering the potential benefits.2
Some states have no-fault auto insurance laws that allow policyholders to collect benefits (up to policy limits) from their own insurance company regardless of who caused an accident or whether the other party has insurance. This type of benefit may also be called personal injury protection (PIP). Even in no-fault states, UM/UIM coverage may provide an extra level of financial protection at a reasonable cost.
In case of an accident
If you’re involved in a collision, whether in your vehicle or as a pedestrian, obtain the other party’s license plate number, driver’s license number, and insurance and contact information, and make sure to file a police report. (In an encounter with a hit-and-run driver, obtain any information you can, even a partial plate number.) If possible, use your mobile phone to take photos of the damage and the area where the accident occurred. Your insurer will investigate the claim and try to verify the cause of the accident and who was at fault.
Without UM/UIM coverage, the only way you can attempt to recover your uninsured loss is to file a lawsuit against the driver who caused the accident. Legal proceedings could prove costly, and there’s no guarantee you’ll receive the damages you seek. Even if you were to win a judgment, it may not be possible to collect from an individual who didn’t have the funds to purchase adequate insurance coverage in the first place.
UM/UIM coverage options vary widely by state. Member Advantage Insurance Services can help you determine the available options and the appropriate coverage for your situation.
Basic Elements - Legal Text
1 Insurance Information Institute, 2020
2 Investopedia, 2020
This information is not intended as tax, legal, investment, or retirement advice or recommendations, and it may not be relied on for the purpose of avoiding any federal tax penalties. You are encouraged to seek guidance from an independent tax or legal professional. The content is derived from sources believed to be accurate. Neither the information presented nor any opinion expressed constitutes a solicitation for the purchase or sale of any security. This material was written and prepared by Broadridge Advisor Solutions. © 2021 Broadridge Financial Solutions, Inc.